IMORTANT NOTE: We have maintained the original taxonomic designation for each specimen as presented at the time of its initial publication, despite the fact that many of these specimens have been reclassified since.  We chose to follow this protocol because of the difficulty in keeping up to date with all of the taxonomic groups, and our hesitancy to make a judgement call on taxonomic debates.  As such, please search the database with this in mind, perhaps using higher level taxonomic classifications for your query.

Below are the publications already included in CODI:

At the end of this list are the publications next in line to be culled for information on the fossils.

Andrews P. 1983. Small mammal faunal diversity at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Animals and archaeology. 1:77-85.

Arcos Fernandez S, Sevilla Garcia P, Fernandez Jalvo Y. 2010. Preliminary small mammal taphonomy of FLK NW level 20 (Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania). Quaternary Research 74:405-410.

Auffenberg W. 1981. The fossil turtles of Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, Africa. Copeia 1981:509-522.

Bishop LC. 2010. Suoidea. Werdelin L, Sanders WJ, eds. In: Cenozoic Mammals of Africa. London: University of California Press. pp. 821-842.

Blumenschine RJ, Peters CR, Masao FT, et al. 2003. Late Pliocene Homo and Hominid Land Use from Western Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Science 299:1217-1221.

Butler PM. 1965. Fossil Mammals of Africa No.  18. East African Miocene and Pleistocene Chalicotheres. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History): Geology 10:163-23.

Butler P, Greenwood M. 1973. The early Pleistocene hedgehogs from Olduvai, Tanzania. Fossil Vertebrates of Africa 3:7-42.

Butler P, Greenwood M. 1976. Elephant-shrews (Macroscelididae) from Olduvai and Makapansgat. Fossil Vertebrates of Africa 4:1-56.

Butler P, Greenwood M. 1979. Soricidae (Mammalia) from the Early Pleistocene of Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 67:329-379.

Churcher C. 1982. Oldest ass recovered from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, and the origin of asses. Journal of Paleontology 56:1124-1132.

Clarke RJ. Published online 4 May 2012 A Homo habilis maxilla and other newly-discovered hominid fossils from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Olduvai Special issue, JHE

Davis PR. 1964. Homonid fossils from Bed I, Olduvai Gorge, Tanganyika. A tibia and fibula. Nature 201:967

Denys C. 1989. A new species of bathyergid rodent from Olduvai Bed I (Tanzania, Lower Pleistocene). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 178:257-264.

Denys C. 1989. Phylogenetic affinities of the oldest East African Otomys (Rodentia, Mammalia) from Olduvai Bed I (Pleistocene, Tanzania). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paleontologie, Monatshefte 44:705-725.

Denys C. 1989. Two new gerbillids (Rodentia, Mammalia) from Olduvai Bed I (Pleistocene, Tanzania). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 178:243-265.

Denys C. 1990. First occurrence of Xerus cf. inauris (Rodentia, Sciruridae) at Olduvai Bed I (Lower Pleistocene, Tanzania). Paläontologische Zeitschrift 64: 359-365.

Dietrich, W.O. 1937. Pleistozäne Giraffiden und Bovinen aus Oldoway. p.106.

Dominguez-Rodrigo M, et al. 2012.  Earliest Porotic Hyperostosis on a 1.5-Million-Year-Old Hominin, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania.  PLoS ONE 7(10): e46414. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0046414.

Gentry AW. 1966. Fossil Antilopini of East Africa. British Museum (Natural History). 106 pp.

Gentry AW. 1967. Pelorovis oldowayensis Reck, an extinct bovid from East Africa. British Museum:245-299

Gentry AW, Gentry A. 1978. Fossil Bovidae (Mammalia) of Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Part I. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History): Geology 29:289-446.

Gentry AW, Gentry A. 1969. Fossil camels in Kenya and Tanzania. Nature 222:898.

Gentry AW, Gentry A, Mayr H. 1995. Rediscovery of fossil antelope holotypes (Mammalia, Bovidae) collected from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, in 1913. Bayerische Staatssammlung fur Palaontologie und Historische Geologie, Mitteilungen, Munich, Germany 35:125-135.

Greenwood P, Todd E. 1970. Fish remains from Olduvai.  Fossil Vertebrates of Africa 2:225-241.

Hans-Reck 19013, Oldoway-Expedion Monograph; LSB Leakey 18 March 1933

Harris JM, Solounias N, Geraads D. 2010. Giraffoidea. Werdelin L, Sanders WJ, eds. In: Cenozoic Mammals of Africa. London: University of California Press. pp. 393-428.

Hopwood A. 1934. New fossil mammals from Olduvai, Tanganyika territory. Annals of the Magazine of Natural History 10:546-550.

Jaeger JJ. 1976. Les rongeurs (Mammalia, Rodentia) du Pleistocene inferieur d’Olduvai Bed I (Tanzanie) 1ere Partie: Les Murides. Fossil Vertebrates of Africa 4:58-120.

Johanson DC,  Masao FT, Eck GG, et al. 1987. New partial skeleton of Homo habilis from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Nature 327: 205-209.

Johanson DC, Shreeve J. 1989. Lucy’s Child. William Morrow and Co., Inc, New York.

Jolly CJ. 1965. Origins and specialization of the long-faced Cercopithecoidea. PhD thesis, University of London.

Jolly CJ. 1972. The classification and natural history of Theropithecus (Simopithecus)(Andrews, 1916), baboons of the African Plio-Pleistocene.

Leakey LSB, Tobias PV, Napier JR. 1964. A new species of the genus Homo from Olduvai Gorge. Nature 202:7–9.

Leakey LSB. 1965. Olduvai Gorge 1951-61 Vol. 1. A preliminary report on the geology and fauna. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 118 pp.

Leakey LSB. 1951. Olduvai Gorge: a report on the evolution of the hand-axe culture in beds I-IV. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 163 pp.

Leakey LSB. 1959. A new fossil skull from Olduvai. Nature 184:491-493.

Leakey LSB. 1960. Recent discoveries at Olduvai Gorge. Nature 188:1050-1052.

Leakey, L.S.B. 1961. New finds at Olduvai Gorge. Nature 189: 649-650

Leakey LSB, Leakey M. 1964. Recent discoveries of fossil hominids in Tanganyika: at Olduvai and near Lake Natron. Nature 202:5-7.

Leakey LSB. 1966. Homo habilis, Homo erectus and the Australopithecines. Nature 209(5030):1279-1281.

Leakey LSB, Whitworth T. 1958. Notes on the genus Simopithecus, with a description of a new species from Olduvai. Coryndon Memorial Museum.

Leakey MD. 1971. Olduvai Gorge: Volume 3: Excavations in Beds I and II, 1960-1963. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 306 pp.

Leakey MG. 1982. Extinct large colobines from the Plio-Pleistocene of Africa. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 58:153-172.

Leakey MG, Leakey REF. 1973. Pleistocene Colobinae from East Africa. Fossil Vertebrates of Africa 3:21-138.

Leakey MG, Leakey REF. 1976. Further Cercopithecinae (Mammalia, Primates) from the Plio/Pleistocene of East Africa. Fossil Vertebrates of Africa 4: 1-56.

Leakey MD. 1969. Recent discoveries of hominid remains at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Nature, 223:754–756.

Leakey MD. 1978. Olduvai fossil hominids: their stratigraphic positions and associations. In: Jolly, CJ, editor. Early hominids of Africa. London:Duckworth. pp. 3-16.

Leakey MG, Leakey REF.  1973. Pleistocene Colobinae from East Africa. Leakey LSB, Savage RJG, Coryndon SC, eds. In: Fossil Vertebrates of Africa, vol. 3. London: Academic Press. pp. 121-138. 1973.

Leakey MG, Leakey R.EF 1976. Further Cercopithecinae (Mammalia, Primates) from the Plio/Pleistocene of East Africa. In: Fossil vertebrates of Africa vol. 4 4 London: Academic Press. pp.121-146.

Leakey MG. 1982. Extinct large colobines from the Plio-Pleistocene of Africa. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 58:153-172.

Petter G. 1973. Carnivores Pleistocenes du ravin d’Olduvai (Tanzanie). Fossil Vertebrates of Africa 3:43-100.

Rage J. 1973. Fossil snakes from Olduvai, Tanzania. Fossil Vertebrates of Africa 3:1-6.

Reck, Hans. 1937. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Oldoway-Expedition 1913. Berlin: D. Reimer.

Remane A. 1925. Der Fossile Pavian (Papio Sp.) von Oldoway nebst Bemerkungen über die Gattung Simopithecus. CW Andrews,  H Reck (ed.). In: Wissenschaftliche ergebnisse der Oldoway-Expedition 1913, vol. 2. pp. 83-90.

Schwarz E. 1937. Die fossilen Antilopen von Oldoway. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Oldoway-Expedition 1913: 8-104.

Tobias P. 1964. The Olduvai Bed I Hominine with special reference to its cranial capacity. Nature 202:3-4.

Von Zieten RRR. 2009. Preliminary report on a new Olduvai hominid from 1968: an Anatomically-Modern-Man from Upper Ndutu Bed. Retrieved from

Wederlin L, Sanders WJ. 2011. Cenozoic Mammals of Africa.


These publications are next in line to be added into CODI:

Coryndon SC. 1970. Evolutionary trends in East African Hippopotamidae. Bulletin de l’Association Française des Etudes sur le Quaternaire 1:473-478.

Harris JM, White TD. 1979. Evolution of the Plio-Pleistocene African Suidae. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 69:1-128.

Heberer G. 1963. Uber einen neuen archanthropinin Typus aus der Oldoway Schlucht. Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Anthropologie. 53:171-177.

Hooijer DA. 1975. Miocene to Pleistocene Hipparions of Kenya, Tanzania and Ethiopia. Zoologische Verhandelingen 142:1-80.

Leakey LSB. 1958. Some East African Pleistocene Suidae. Fossil Mammals of Africa 14:1-69.

Leakey, LSB. 1961. The juvenile mandible from Olduvai. Nature 191(4786): 417-418.

Petter G. 1967. Petits carnivores villafranchiens du Bed I d’Oldoway (Tanzanie). Problèmes actuels de Palèontologie (Èvolution des Vertèbrès) 163:529-538.

Reck H. 1925. Wissenschaften Ergebnisse der Oldoway Expedition, 1913: G. Borntraeger.

Wood B. 1992. Origin and evolution of the genus Homo. Nature 355:783-790.