Preserved elements abbreviation key

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Preserved Elements

The anatomical description of the specimen is described in this section. Specimen elements are abbreviated. Oftentimes the author of a publication or monograph does not give the side of the element preserved. For example a maxilla will be abbreviated MAX. If it is a fragmented left side of the maxilla, it will be abbreviated L-MAX-f.

The following table lists the abbreviations and their corresponding elements.

Element Abbreviation Notes
Articular ARTC
Astragalus AST
Atlas (1st cervical vert.) ATL
Axis (2nd cervical vert.) AXIS
Basicranium BASC
Basioccipital BOCC
Calcaneus CAL
Calvaria CALV
Canine C
Capitate CAP
Carapace CARA
Carpal CAR
Carpometacarpus CARMET
Caudal vertebra CAU
Ceratohyal CRHL
Cervical vertebra CER
Clavicle CLA
Cleithrum CLEI
Coracoid COR
Cranium CRA
Cuboid CUB
Cuneiform CUNE
Dentary DNTY
Dermethmoid DERM
Dermosphenotic DRMS
Entoplastron ENPS
Epihyal EPHL
Epiplastron EPLS
Ethmoid ETHM
Femur FEM
Fibula FIB
Frontal FRO
Frontlet FRLT
Gill arch ARCH
Hamate HAM
Horn core HOR
Humerus HUM
Hyomandibula HMND
Hypohyal HYHL
Hypoplastron HYPL
Incisor I
Interopercle IOPL
Jugal JUG
Lumbar Vertebra LUM
Mandible MAN
Mandible and Cranium SKULL
Maxilla MAX
Mesethmoid MSEH
Metacarpal MTC
Metapodial MTP
Metatarsal MTT
Molar M
Navicular NAV
Naviculocuboid CUBNAV
Neural NRL
Neurocranium NRCR
Nuchal NUCH
Occipital OCC
Opercle OPER
Ossicone OSS
Palatine PAL
Parasphenoid PSPH
Parietal PAR
Patella PAT
Pectoral girdle PCG
Pelvic girdle PVG
Peripheral PERI
Phalanx PHX
Pisiform PIS
Plastron PLAS
Pleural PLR
Podial POD
Premaxilla PMAX
Premolar P
Preopercle POPR
Pterotic PTRC
Pterygiophore PTYG
Pterygoid PTER
Pygal PYG
Quadrate QUAD
Radioulna RUL
Radius RAD
Sacrum SAC
Scapula SCP
Sesamoid SES
Sphenotic SPHT
Skeleton (complete) SKEL
Sternum STNM
Suborbital SUBO
Supracleithrum SPCL
Supraoccipital SOCC
Supraorbital SORB
Supraoperculum SUPP
Suprapygal SUPY
Talus TAL
Tarsal TAR
Tarsometatarsus TARMET
Temporal bone TEM
Thoracic vertebrae THO
Tibia TIB
Tibofibula TFB
Tibiotarsus TBT
Triquetral TRQL
Unidentified limb bone(s) LIMB
Unknown elements UK Author did not provide information on elements preserved
Unspecified tooth TOOTH
Urohyal URHL
Vertebra VER Unidentified vertebra
Vomer VOM
Xiphiplastron XIPH
Zygomatic bone ZYG
Prefixes Abbreviation  
Right side of element R- For instance R-MAX refers to the right maxilla
Left side of element L- For instance L-TIB refers to the left tibia
Right and left sides R/L- Both sides of the element have been preserved
Deciduous tooth prefix d-
*Note: Elements requiring more than one prefix should have the prefixes separated by a slash.  For instance, a right deciduous molar would be R/d-M
Suffixes Abbreviation  
Fragment -f Only a fragment of the element has been preserved.